oak

A middleware framework for handling HTTP with Deno 🐿️ 🦕

View the Project on GitHub oakserver/oak

Frequently Asked Questions

Where can I find full API documentation?

One of the advantages of Deno (and TypeScript) is that it is quite easy to inline documentation in the code. The doc.deno.land site provides all the documentation directly from the source code. The documentation for oak’s mod.ts contains all the APIs that are considered “public”. You can also get an output of the documentation directly via deno doc https://deno.land/x/oak/mod.ts to your console.

Where is ctx.host, ctx.path, ctx.querystring, etc.?

Instead of creating “aliases” to lots of different parts of the requested URL, oak provides a ctx.request.url which is a browser standard instance of URL which contains all of the parts of the requested URL in a single object.

How do I close a server?

Oak uses the browser standard AbortController for closing a server. You pass the .signal of the controller as one of the listen options, and you would then .abort() on the controller when you want the server to close. For example:

import { Application } from "https://deno.land/x/oak/mod.ts";

const app = new Application();

const controller = new AbortController();
const { signal } = controller;

app.use((ctx) => {
  // after first request, the server will be closed
  controller.abort();
});

await app.listen({ port: 8000, signal });
console.log("Server closed.");

How to perform a redirect?

In the ctx.response call the .redirect() method. For example:

import { Application } from "https://deno.land/x/oak/mod.ts";

const app = new Application();

app.use((ctx) => {
  ctx.response.redirect("https://deno.land/");
});

await app.listen({ port: 8000 });

The symbol REDIRECT_BACK can be used to redirect the requestor back to the to the referrer (if the request’s Referer header has been set), and the second argument can be used to provide a “backup” if there is no referrer. For example:

import { Application, REDIRECT_BACK } from "https://deno.land/x/oak/mod.ts";

const app = new Application();

app.use((ctx) => {
  ctx.response.redirect(REDIRECT_BACK, "/home");
});

await app.listen({ port: 8000 });

How do I pass custom properties/state around?

The Application and the Context share an object property named .state. This is designed for making custom application state available when processing requests.

It can also be strongly typed in TypeScript by using generics.

When a new context is created, by default the state of the application is cloned, so effectively changes to the context’s .state will only endure for the lifetime of the request and response. There are other options for how the state for the context is initialized, which can be set by setting the contextState option when creating the application. Acceptable values are "clone", "prototype", "alias", "empty". "clone" is the default and clones the applications .state skipping any non-cloneable values like functions and symbols. "prototype" uses the application’s .state as the prototype for the context .state, that means shallow property assignments on the context’s state only last for the lifetime of the context, but other changes directly modify the shared state. "alias" means that the application’s .state and the context’s .state are the same object. "empty" will initialize the context’s state with an empty object.

If you wanted to create middleware that set a user ID in requests, you would do something like this:

import { Application } from "https://deno.land/x/oak/mod.ts";

interface MyState {
  userId: number;
}

const app = new Application<MyState>();

app.use(async (ctx, next) => {
  // do whatever checks to determine the user ID
  ctx.state.userId = userId;
  await next();
  delete ctx.state.userId; // cleanup
});

app.use(async (ctx, next) => {
  // now the state.userId will be set for the rest of the middleware
  ctx.state.userId;
  await next();
});

await app.listen();

I am seeing [uncaught application error] in the output, what is going on?

By default, Application() has a setting logErrors set to true. When this is the case, any errors that are thrown in middleware and uncaught, or occur outside the middleware (like some network errors) will result in a message being logged.

Specifically error messages like Http - connection closed before message completed can occur when responding to requests where the connection drops before Deno has fully flushed the body. In some network environments this is “normal”, but neither Deno nor oak know that, so the error gets surfaced. There maybe no way to avoid 100% of these errors, and an application might want to respond to that (like clearing some sort of state), therefore oak does not just “ignore” them, but provides them.

You can disabled automatic logging by setting logErrors to false in the Application options. You can also use the .addEventHandler("error", (evt) => {}); to register your own event handler for uncaught errors.